Artificial Intelligence

[Adrián Agenjo is an LL.M graduate from the London School of Economics and a Researcher at Pompeu Fabra University. He also works at Irídia - Human Rights Defence Centre in Spain.] The views expressed in this article are the author’s alone and do not represent any institutional affiliation. Lavender Unveiled: The Oblivion of Human Dignity in Israel's War Policy on Gaza The Israeli military...

[Gary Corn is a Professor and Director of the Technology, Security and Law Program at American University Washington College of Law. He previously served as a military attorney in the US Army, including as Staff Judge Advocate (General Counsel) of U.S. Cyber Command.] When it comes to the use of artificial intelligence (AI) and autonomous weapons in conflict, States have already...

[Anna Rosalie Greipl is a Research Assistant at the Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights where she works for the Digitalization of Armed Conflict projects. She is also a Ph.D. researcher at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies.] Legal debates on the military use of artificial intelligence (AI) systems are replete with questions around the role of...

[Jimena Sofía Viveros Álvarez serves as the Chief of Staff and Head Legal Advisor to Justice Loretta Ortiz at the Mexican Supreme Court as well as a member of the UN Secretary General's High-Level Advisory Body on AI. Her prior roles include national leadership positions at the Federal Judicial Council, the Ministry of Security, and the Ministry of Finance, where...

[Dr Ingvild Bode is Associate Professor at the Centre for War Studies, University of Southern Denmark.  She is the Principal Investigator of the European Research Council-funded project AutoNorms: Weaponised Artificial Intelligence, Norms, and Order (08/2020-07/2025) and also serves as the co-chair of the IEEE-SA Research Group on AI and Autonomy in Defence Systems. Anna Nadibaidze is a researcher for the European Research Council funded...

[Georgia Hinds is a Legal Adviser with the ICRC in Geneva, working on the legal and humanitarian implications of autonomous weapons, AI and other new technologies of warfare. Before joining the ICRC, she worked in the Australian Government, advising on public international law including international humanitarian and human rights law, and international criminal law, and served as a Reservist Officer...

[Marta Bo is a Senior Researcher at the T.M.C. Asser Institute and an Associate Senior Researcher at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI).] [Jessica Dorsey is an Assistant Professor of International and European Law at Utrecht University and Managing Editor of Opinio Juris.] Against the backdrop of Israel’s military campaign in Gaza, noted as the most destructive in a century, and...

[Dr. Lauren Sanders is a Senior Research Fellow at the University of Queensland and a legal practitioner. She served in the Australian Army for several decades as a Signals Officer and Legal Officer.  This article represents the author’s personal views and does not reflect those of the Australian Defence Force or Australian Government.] Many States and regional and international organisations have espoused...

[Dr Guangyu Qiao-Franco is an Assistant Professor of International Relations at Radboud University and a Senior Researcher of the ERC funded AutoNorms Project at the University of Southern Denmark. ] [Mahmoud Javadi serves as an AI Governance Researcher at Erasmus University Rotterdam in The Netherlands. In this capacity, he plays a role in an EU-funded research consortium titled ‘Reignite Multilateralism via...

[Tsvetelina van Benthem is a postdoctoral research fellow at the Oxford Institute for Ethics, Law and Armed Conflict, lecturer in international law for the Oxford University Diplomatic Studies Programme and senior legal adviser at The Reckoning Project. She is a member of the core team of the Oxford Process on International Law Protections in Cyberspace, and regularly advises states and...

[Lieutenant General John (Jack) N.T. Shanahan retired from the United States Air Force in 2020 after a 36-year military career. In his final assignment he served as the inaugural Director of the U.S. Department of Defense Joint Artificial Center. As the first Director of the Algorithmic Warfare Cross-Functional Team (Project Maven), he established and led DoD’s pathfinder AI fielding program...