More on Why the U.S. Is Not Violating the Outer Space Treaty By Allowing Asteroid Mining

by Julian Ku

I’ve received some very good (though pretty much all critical) comments to my original post defending the consistency of the recently enacted U.S. Space Act with the Outer Space Treaty. I will concede that my reading of the statute and treaty is not exactly a cut and dried simple legal issue. But I think too much of the reporting on the Space Act has made it seem like it is a clear violation the other way.  (See here, here, and here.)

One thing that few of these articles note is that the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science, Space, and Technology did study the question of the Outer Space Treaty when it reported out this legislation.  They reasonably concluded that allowing private companies to exploit celestial bodies is not a “national appropriation” within the meaning of the Outer Space Treaty.  Indeed, this has long been a position of the United States. For instance, the House Committee noted that in 1980, the U.S. State Department’s Legal Adviser explained that

`The United States has long taken the position that Article 1 of that treaty [Outer Space Treaty] . . . recognizes the right of exploitation. We were and are aware, however, that this view is not shared by all States or commentators, some of whom take the position that the nonappropriation provisions in Article [II] of the 1967 Treaty preclude exploitation of celestial natural resources and the reduction to private property.”

It is also worth noting that State Practice seems to lean in favor of allowing the use of materials from outer space. Again, from the Committee’s discussion:

State practice is consistent with finding that exploration and use of outer space includes the right to remove, take possession, and use in-situ natural resources from celestial bodies. The United States, Russia, and Japan have all removed, taken possession, and used in-situ natural resources. These activities have never been protested by a State party to the treaty or judged in a court of law to be in violation of the Outer Space Treaty.

Indeed, some moon rocks taken by the Russian government have actually already been sold to private parties at Sotheby’s auctions in recent years.

Finally, the Committee cites Article VI of the Outer Space Treaty as recognizing that non-governmental entities can carry on activities in outer space, as long states bear international responsibility for those private activities.

States Parties to the Treaty shall bear international responsibility for national activities in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, whether such activities are carried on by governmental agencies or by non-governmental entities, and for assuring that national activities are carried out in conformity with the provisions set forth in the present Treaty. The activities of non-governmental entities in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, shall require authorization and continuing supervision by the appropriate State Party to the Treaty.

I will again note that this reading of the Outer Space Treaty is hardly slam-dunk, but I think it is a quite reasonable one that is at least as persuasive as the interpretation offered by the critics.  I think it is worth noting that State practice leans in favor of the U.S. here, which is not decisive, of course, but it is helpful nonetheless.  I also don’t think the U.S. ever would have committed itself to a flat out ban on commercial exploitation of outer space when it signed the Outer Space Treaty.

In any event, we will see how things spin out. As I noted, it is possible we will one day need an “Authority’ like that created for the international seabed, but not just yet.

3 Responses

  1. Will Rogers once said that we have the best politicians that money can buy! Looking back, however, we don’t always get the best.
    But Julian: why is it not surprising that a U.S. House Committee stated what you have quoted?
    Did they even bother to address “shall be carried out FOR THE BENEFIT AND INT THE INTERESTS OF ALL COUNTRIES”?

  2. While this explains the view of the United States it still does not explain how commercial exploitation can be “for the benefit and in the interests of all countries”. Nor does the fact that Article VI of the Outer Space Treaty recognises non-government entities exempt such activity from having to be in the “benefit and and in the interests of all countries”. I am also curious as to whether, apart from the Russian Sotheby’s example, state practice relates to the commercial exploitation of natural resources from celestial bodies, as opposed to their removal, use, and possession for scientific, educational, or other arguably altruistic purposes.

    My personal take is that private exploration, removal, and ownership of natural resources extracted is not necessarily prohibited by the Outer Space Treaty, but the ultimate use of the natural resources taken is salient. Is it being sold for private gain, displayed in a museum, or used for research? Private ownership that allows whole-scale commercial operations for profit would seem anthema to the treaty.

Trackbacks and Pingbacks

  1. batik solo

    Opinio Juris » Blog Archive More on Why the U.S. Is Not Violating the Outer Space Treaty By Allowing Asteroid Mining – Opinio Juris