Search: extraterritorial sanctions

throughout the world. Family members of sanctioned individuals may also be targeted or face difficulties as a result of being an associated person to the sanctions target. Unlike some criminal laws that can be ignored or unenforced until they are amended or repealed, sanctions violations are strict liability offenses. Thus, banks and financial institutions must comply with the existing sanctions orders and refuse to process transactions, or freeze assets. OFAC fines can reach as high as $250,000, and an intentional violation of a sanctions order carries a maximum sentence of...

sanctions. Then, if there is a rule on the termination date and conditions of sanctions under international law, Russia must abide by this rule to identify its act as a retorsion. However, there is no clear requirement concerning the termination process of unilateral sanctions under international law, that is, within the concept of retorsions. Therefore, if Russia’s suspension constitutes a retorsion, it may be implemented indefinitely in practice without any legal obstacle arising from international law. This would not be the case for the concept of countermeasures which stipulates certain...

...“smart”, or targeted sanctions against specific individuals or entities within states has been gradually made. Murphy denotes a deep paradox: if targeted sanctions were established against human rights concerns relating to blanket sanctions, but these same targeted sanctions have been criticized for their potentially far-reaching encroachments on the rights and freedoms of some of those individuals, being targeted. Murphy illustrates the violations of human rights resulting from targeted sanctions as a caution, that the state-orientated institutional framework was architecturally unprepared to accommodate the individual as a new target of sanctions....

personnel from any attempts to exercise such jurisdiction’, once again implying that they will protect their nationals from such overreach. It also puts for its assessment that the imposition of sanctions on the Court and its personnel would not be ‘an effective or appropriate strategy’, thus implying that the actual sanctions were the only thing wrong with Trump’s executive order. The press statement released by the White House announcing the revocation of the sanctions reiterates that the United States is a leader in the international criminal justice project, and that...

in certain contexts. Sanctions are thus once again, causing or contributing to conflict-related food insecurity.  Now it is the most vulnerable sectors of civilian populations – those reliant on humanitarian action – that are being affected. The UN Security Council has imposed sanctions against groups or individuals in response to violations of IHL in a number of conflicts – including in response to the obstruction of humanitarian activities or of access to humanitarian assistance – and well as pursuant to the ISIL/Al Qaeda sanctions regime.  Groups designated under these sanctions,...

legality of sanctions on Russia under the WTO’s Public Morals Exception represent the author’s perspective rather than established legal precedent. In the author’s view, the imposition of sanctions on Russia can be firmly justified under the requirements outlined in Article XX. These sanctions are a response to protect public morals and address specific incidents that have violated these moral principles. Targeted sanctions have emerged as a powerful tool to ensure accountability and compliance for the preservation of human rights. The primary justification for imposing sanctions on Russia lies in the...

...extent of the obligation to make reparations for waging an aggressive war. Sanctions The purpose of sanctions are to censure wrongdoing and to have consequences for the wrongdoer. As a countermeasure to another party’s breach of an international legal obligation, sanctions revolve around expressing moral messages and as a means to vindicate the law. There has been much derision of sanctions as to whether or not they are effective in changing the behaviour of wrongdoers, or just serve to cause hardship to civilian populations. Although there have been greater efforts...

(ii) porous borders blunting the impact of sanctions, and (iii) the difficulty of reaching targeted individuals who operate outside formal financial systems. Exclusion from membership of a respected regional organization may therefore have a greater impact than multilateral sanctions imposed by distant bodies, due to the stigmatizing effects and loss of participation in local economic and security communities. Another difference between UN and regional sanctions is duration. Whereas UN Security Council sanctions often linger on for years, and some would argue, far beyond their natural lifespan, sanctions applied by the...

diplomatic way out of his self-made crisis or in a worst-case scenario learn to live with a nuclear-armed Iran. Since the U.S. imposed economy-crushing sanctions in 2018, Iran’s financial markets have been in a free fall. Sanctions have brought significant hardship to Iranian daily life in recent years. Iran’s leaders, who initially even thanked U.S. for imposing sanctions which helped the country cutting ties of dependence with the outside world, now publicly blame sanctions as a form of economic terrorism and international crime against humanity (see here, here and here)....

...Trump Administration levied sanctions against two staff members of the ICC pursuant to an executive order issued by President Trump. The world responded with outrage. The administration demonstrated clear disdain for accountability, but the two individuals chosen for sanctions were highly visible African staff members of the ICC.  The sanctions came after a determination by the Court’s Office of the Prosecutor (OTP) that war crimes and crimes against humanity were committed in Afghanistan. In November 2017, the OTP filed a request with the Pre-Trial Chamber to open an investigation in Afghanistan, based...

violated the US sanctions. SWIFT was no exception, with then US Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin warning, “We have advised SWIFT that it must disconnect any Iranian financial institution that we designate as soon as technologically feasible to avoid sanctions exposure.” Like other entities involved in international transactions, this placed SWIFT in the uncomfortable position of navigating sanctions compliance during an awkward period of disharmonized objectives among traditional allies. SWIFT ultimately chose to comply with the US sanctions, snapping back the ban applied to Iranian banks, although it issued a statement...

...However, if the international system makes common cause of accountability then it is incumbent on everyone to demand of the United States what it demands of other nations—clear proof, not only from government sources but from victims too, of the sanctity of the systems tasked with delivering this justice. The microscopic scrutiny extended to others should equally apply even where countries like the USA with a robust public diplomacy machinery are involved. The USA Pulls Out the Sanctions Card and Other Tactics The reverberations from the infamous sanctions across the...