Search: extraterritorial sanctions

the Russian Federation, which itself has been blamed for destructive cyber-attacks and targeted by unilateral cyber sanctions.  This contribution proceeds in three parts. First, cyber sanctions are defined and their scope under the existing domestic cyber sanctions frameworks are analysed. Second, a succinct overview of how cyber sanctions have been used so far is presented. Finally, we explore what a future International Cybercrime Treaty may mean for the legality of cyber sanctions, both under international law as well as under WTO and investment law.  What are Cyber Sanctions?  The existing...

Although I argue that the default should be short and managed sanctions cycles with defined sunset clauses, an ongoing review process where individuals and entities can bring de-listing claims and are afforded due process protections could justify open-ended sanctions or sanctions subject to review. Criteria for the termination of sanctions regimes are as essential to the effectiveness of sanctions as intelligent sanctions design. While it is recognized that better targeting may help to shorten conflict phases, the relationship between well defined goals, incentives to encourage compliance, and terminating sanctions regimes...

the vessel had been removed from its registry since May 29, 2019 because of sanctions and/or illegal activities. This is not the first time Panama has been involved in such an incident. In 2018, Panama de-registered the vessel KOTI due to non-compliance with the UNSC sanctions regime on the DPRK. This time, however, it is different as Panama decided to remove 59 vessels from its registry not based on binding sanctions issued by the UNSC, but on sanctions issued by a single State (US). This new criterion would contradict Panama’s...

...States is committing crimes against humanity in Venezuela through the imposition of economic sanctions. While the sanctions in question date back to 2015, the issue is particularly relevant now, as the COVID-19 pandemic has prompted UN experts to call for the lifting of sanctions in Venezuela and elsewhere. Contrary to the brief accompanying the referral, however, economic sanctions are not crimes against humanity under the Rome Statute. A summary of US sanctions is published by Congress here. Since 2015, sanctions comprise individual sanctions (asset freezes and visa restrictions) on those...

...agree to formalize their agreement into a treaty, then President Obama will be forced to utilize his limited statutory discretion to provide Iran sanctions relief. This will involve the President exploiting sanctions waivers (time-limited but open to successive periods of renewal), as well as his position as the sanctions’ chief administrator, to relax the sanctions on Iran and ensure measurable relief. However, the President does not have the power to terminate the sanctions altogether, as termination (where it is permitted) would require the President to make certifications as to Iran’s...

...violated the Iranian sanctions regime” and that “the country is immaterial. If they’re in violation of these sanctions, we’ll do our level best to enforce them… it will become our obligation as a member of the UN in the same way it’s been our obligation to enforce… US sanctions alone.” According to New York Times reporting on his visit to the UN, Pompeo reserved his harshest words towards the UK, France and Germany which he said “chose to side with the ayatollahs”. Second, the stage will thus be set for...

...affected by sanctions from another state, which has a chilling effect even when transfers between two countries are not prohibited. Problems like these in turn affect the financial health of POWs. For example: Sanctions : States involved in transfers, including the Detaining Power, may be obliged to comply with sanction regimes issued by states or by the Security Council acting pursuant to Chapter VII of the UN Charter. These sanctions typically consist of asset freezes against entities, mainly against banks. Conversion rates : The second issue relates to the transfer...

Most reporting on the nuclear agreement with Iran has tended to generalize about the types of sanctions and the impact of the deal on these various measures, so it would be easy to assume that United Nations sanctions are being eased or lifted, but this is not the case. The deal primarily eases unilateral sanctions by the United States and the European Union against Iran, leading to what is estimated to be around $7 billion in sanctions relief. UN sanctions against Iran—found in resolutions 1737, 1747, 1803 and 1929—will only...

The UN’s Department of Political Affairs recently published this list of “13 things to know about UN sanctions.” If you scroll down on the link above, you’ll also see some great sanctions graphics. United Nations Sanctions Primer 1. Since the creation of the United Nations, the Security Council has established 25 sanctions regimes. They have been used to support conflict resolution efforts, prevent the proliferation of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction, and counter terrorism. 2. “UN sanctions have proved to be an effective complement to other Security Council...

and coordination on the implementation of UN sanctions (addressing opportunities to improve sanctions integration and coordination among the UN entities supporting the Council’s sanctions function, including sanctions committees, expert groups, the Ombudsperson and the Secretariat) UN sanctions and related institutions and instruments. (addressing the intersections between UN sanctions and other international instruments and institutions dealing with international security, such as international arms control and disarmament mechanisms, international financial and economic regulatory systems, and international criminal justice institutions) UN sanctions, regional organizations, and emerging challenges (Addressing opportunities to optimize UN sanctions...

behavior.” Moreover, a 2007 report of the Security Council’s Working Group on Sanctions states: “Experience has shown that sanctions work best as a means of persuasion, not punishment: sanctions should include carrots along with sticks—not only threats, but inducements to elicit compliance. The target must understand what actions it is expected to take. And partial or full compliance should be met by reciprocal steps from the Council, such as easing or lifting sanctions as appropriate.” (UN Security Council, Letter Dated 12 December 2007 from the Permanent Representative of Greece to...

...service to international criminal justice will have to make pragmatic calculations depending on their racialisation and nationalities. Ultimately, the paternalism in and marginalisation of international criminal justice have found a good friend in EO 13928 and the sanctions and their enduring legacies. While not all may be willing, for whatever reason, to acknowledge the racist nature of the sanctions and the racialised dynamics of their legacy, we may at least agree that these sanctions should never have been imposed in the first place. Sanctions in this context are a base,...