An Open Letter to the Israeli Government Condemning Annexation [Final Update]

An Open Letter to the Israeli Government Condemning Annexation [Final Update]

Along with 271 of my fellow public international law scholars, I have signed the following open letter condemning Israel’s plan to illegally annex large swathes of the West Bank. If you are interested in joining the list, please send an email with your name and affiliation to annexationletter@gmail.com before July 1. I will update this post with new names every few days. (And please note: I did not write the letter.)

June 10, 2020

MK Benjamin Netanyahu, Prime Minister

MK Benny Gantz, Alternate Prime Minister and Minister of Defense

MK Gabi Ashkenazi, Minister of Foreign Relations

MK Avi Nissenkorn, Minister of Justice

Dr. Avichai Mandelblit, Attorney General

State of Israel

Dear Sirs,

We, the undersigned, scholars of public international law, are writing to express our grave concern regarding the intention of the State of Israel, as expressed by Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, to move towards the unilateral annexation of areas in the West Bank on or after 1 July 2020.

Such an action would constitute a flagrant violation of bedrock rules of international law, and would also pose a serious threat to international stability in a volatile region.

The norm prohibiting unilateral annexation of territory acquired by force has come to be universally recognized as a basic rule of international law. All international courts (including the International Court of Justice) and all international institutions (including the UN General Assembly and Security Council) who have considered this matter, as well as the overwhelming majority of international jurists, affirm this rule unequivocally. This prohibition applies equally to territories belonging to other states, as well as to non-self-governing territories in which peoples are entitled to determine their political fate in accordance with the right to self-determination. Furthermore, this prohibition applies to all territories occupied by force, even if it is claimed that force was initially used in an act of self-defense.

The West Bank was taken by force in 1967. It has been consistently recognized by the UN General Assembly, the UN Security Council, and the International Court of Justice as an occupied territory, in which the Palestinian people is entitled to fulfill its right to self-determination. This remains so even if bilateral negotiations could determine the details of security arrangements and final borders. Furthermore, the Israeli government as well as the Israeli Supreme Court have for decades applied the law of belligerent occupation to the West Bank. This is demonstrated in dozens of decisions by the Supreme Court of Israel, as well as in Israel’s positions before international treaty bodies, where it argues that the West Bank is not under Israeli jurisdiction for the purpose of application of human rights treaties.

It follows that unilateral annexation of any part of this territory would violate the fundamental norm prohibiting annexation as well as the right to self-determination. As such, it would be null and void, entail consequences of international wrongfulness, and – under certain circumstances –  lead to individual international criminal liability. In this context, it matters not whether such actions would be effected through “extension of sovereignty,” “extension of law, jurisdiction, and administration,” or explicit annexation. De facto annexation entails the same legal consequences as de jure annexation. Additionally, in no case can such an act lawfully bring about or justify discriminatory results, inter alia in relation to citizenship or property rights.

We would like to remind you that in a recent memo by Israel’s Attorney General, it was argued explicitly that all territorial aspects of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict must be resolved through bilateral negotiations.[1] Moves to annex parts of the territory would run counter to this pledge. Furthermore, in accordance with its longstanding position that the West Bank is held under belligerent occupation, Israel consistently argued that its actions in the territory are justified by the temporary nature of the situation, and motivated by security concerns alone.[2] Any move to annex territories will put in question past and future arguments by Israel that its actions are indeed concerned only with legitimate security needs.

We therefore urge you to reconsider this path, which is clearly unlawful and will most likely have adverse consequences, including non-recognition and other consequences of an internationally wrongful act. This is in addition to the harm to the legitimacy and foreign relations of the State of Israel, and to a high likelihood of violent escalation.

[1] State of Israel, Office of the Attorney General, The International Criminal Court’s Lack of Jurisdiction over the So-Called “Situation in Palestine” §49 (Dec. 20, 2019).

[2] For instance, concerning the legality of the West Bank Wall/Security Barrier, Israel claimed –indirectly before the International Court of Justice and directly in its own Supreme Court – that the route of the Wall is strictly based on security considerations, and is not designed to determine borders. Indeed, as ruled by the Israeli Supreme Court, sitting as the High Court of Justice, “the military commander is not authorized to order the construction of a separation fence, if the reason behind the fence is a political goal of ‘annexing’ territories of the area to the State of Israel and to determine Israel’s political border.” See HCJ 7957/04 Mara’abe v. The Prime Minister of Israel §15 (2005).

Signatories (affiliations are for identification purposes):

Kai Ambos, Chair for Criminal Law, Criminal Procedure, Comparative Law, International Criminal Law and International Law, Faculty of Law, Georg August Universität Göttingen

Mads Andenas, Professor, Professor of Law, Faculty of Law, University of Oslo

Kyo Arai, Professor of International Law, Doshisha University, Kyoto

Yutaka Arai, Professor in International Human Rights Law, Brussels School of International Studies, University of Kent, Brussels

Cecilia M. Bailliet, Professor of International Law, University of Oslo, Norway

Orna Ben-Naftali, Emile Zola Chair for Human Rights, Shtricks Scool of Law, The College of Management

Daniel Benoliel, Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Haifa

Eyal Benvenisti, Whewell Professor of International Law, Faculty of Law, University of Cambridge

Nathaniel A. Berman, Rahel Varnhagen Professor, Brown University

Nehal Bhuta, Professor of Public International Law, University of Edinburgh

Eirik Bjorge, Professor of Law, University of Bristol Law School

Ziv Bohrer, Senior Lecturer, Bar-Ilan University Faculty of Law

Bill Bowring, Professor of Law, School of Law, Birkbeck University of London

Tomer Broude, Bessie & Michael Greenblatt, Q.C., Chair in Public and International Law, Faculty of Law, Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Jutta Brunnée, University Professor, Metcalf Chair in Environmental Law, University of Toronto Faculty of Law

Gráinne de Búrca, Florence Ellinwood Allen Professor of Law, NYU School of Law

Sarah H. Cleveland, Louis Henkin Professor of Human and Constitutional Rights, Columbia Law School

Geoff S. Corn, Vinson & Elkins Professor of Law, South Texas College of Law Houston

Harlan G. Cohen, Gabriel M. Wilner/UGA Foundation Professor in International Law, University of Georgia

Olivier Corten, Professor of International Law, Université libre de Bruxelles

Matthew Craven, Professor of International Law, SOAS, University of London

Omar M. Dajani, Professor of Law, McGeorge School of Law, University of the Pacific

Tom Dannenbaum, Assistant Professor of International Law, The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University

Natalie Davidson, Lecturer, Buchmann Faculty of Law, Tel Aviv University

Janina Dill, Associate Professor, University of Oxford Department of Politics and International Relations

Catriona Drew, Lecturer in International Law, School of Law, SOAS University of London

Dieter Fleck, Honorary President, International Society for Military Law and the Law of War

Gregory Fox, Professor of Law, Wayne State University Law School

J.A. Frowein, former Director of the Max-Planck-Institute of International Law, former Vice-President of the European Commission of Human Rights

Tarcisio Gazzini, Professor of International Law, University of East Anglia

Robin Geiss, Chair of International Law and Security, University of Glasgow; Swiss Chair of International Humanitarian Law, The Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights

Rotem Giladi, Teaching Fellow in International Law, University of Edinburgh Law School

Christine D. Gray, Emerita Professor of International Law, University of Cambridge Faculty of Law

James A. Green, Professor of Public International Law, University of Reading

Aeyal Gross, Professor of Law, Buchmann Faculty of Law, Tel Aviv University

Francoise Hampson, Emerita Professor of Law, University of Essex

Matthew Happold, Professor of Public International Law, Faculty of Law, Economics and Finance, University of Luxembourg

Guy Harpaz, Associate Professor, Faculty of Law and Department of International Relations, Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Adil Haque, Professor of Law and Judge Jon O. Newman Scholar, Rutgers Law School

Kevin Jon Heller, Associate Professor of International Law, University of Amsterdam, Professor of Law, Australian National University

Christian Henderson, Professor of International Law, University of Sussex

Larissa van den Herik, Professor of Public International Law, Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies, Leiden University

Moshe Hirsch, Maria Von Hofmannsthal Chair in International Law, Faculty of Law, Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Tamar Hostovsky Brandes, Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Law, Ono Academic College

Robert Howse, Lloyd C. Nelson Professor of International Law, NYU School of Law

Ardi Imseis, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law, Queen’s University

Ioannis Kalpouzos, Lecturer on Law, Harvard Law School; Lecturer in Law, City University of London

Alexandre (Sandy) Kedar, Associate Professor of Law, Faculty of Law, University of Haifa.

Jan Klabbers, Professor, University of Helsinki Faculty of Law

Jann K. Kleffner, Professor of International Law, Swedish Defence University

Robert Kolb, Professor of Public International Law, Law Faculty, University of Geneva

Martti Koskenniemi, Professor of International Law, University of Helsinki Faculty of Law

Shiri Krebs, Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Law, Deakin University

David Kretzmer, Professor Emeritus of International Law, Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Nico Krisch, Professor of International Law, Graduate Institute for International and Development Studies, Geneva

Nicolas Levrat, Professor of European and International Law, Global studies Institute, University of Geneva

Eliav Lieblich, Senior Lecturer, Buchmann Faculty of Law, Tel Aviv University

Karin Loevy, JSD Program Manager and IILJ Research Scholar, NYU Law School of Law

Marco Longobardo, Lecturer in International Law, University of Westminster

David Luban, University Professor and Professor of Law and Philosophy, Georgetown University Law Center

Noam Lubell, Professor of International Law, School of Law, University of Essex

Doreen Lustig, Senior Lecturer, Buchmann Faculty of Law, Tel Aviv University

Itamar Mann, Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Law, Haifa University

Susan Marks, Professor of International Law, London School of Economics

Tamar Megiddo, Minerva Center for the Rule of Law under Extreme Conditions, Faculty of Law, University of Haifa

Marko Milanovic, Professor of Public International Law, University of Nottingham School of Law

Makane Moïse Mbengue, Professor of International Law, Faculty of Law, University of Geneva

Kirsten McConnachie, Associate Professor in Law, University of East Anglia

Samuel Moyn, Henry R. Luce Professor of Jurisprudence and Professor of History, Yale University

Manfred Nowak, Professor of International Human Rights Law, Vienna University, Secretary General of the Global Campus of Human Rights, Venice

Stefan Oeter, Professor of Public International Law, Faculty of Law, University of Hamburg

Phoebe Okowa, Professor of Public International Law, Queen Mary, University of London

Anne Orford, Redmond Barry Distinguished Professor, Michael D Kirby Chair of International Law, Melbourne Law School, The University of Melbourne

Dianne Otto, Francine V. McNiff Chair in Human Rights Law, Melbourne Law School, The University of Melbourne

Paolo Palchetti, Professor of International Law, University Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne

Anne Peters, Managing Director, Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, Heidelberg

Frances Raday, Elias Lieberman Chair in Labour Law, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of Law, Hebrew University of Jerusalem; Director of Concord Research Institute for Integration of International Law in Israel, Shtricks School of Law, The College of Management

Surabhi Ranganathan, University Senior Lecturer, University of Cambridge Faculty of Law

Steven R. Ratner, Bruno Simma Collegiate Professor of Law, University of Michigan Law School

Yaël Ronen, Professor of Law at the Academic Center for Science and Law at Hod Hasharon; Minerva Center for Human Rights, Hebrew University in Jerusalem

Brad R. Roth, Professor of Political Science and Law, Wayne State University

Tom Ruys, Professor of International Law, Ghent University

Michal Saliternik, Lecturer, Netanya Academic College School of Law

Marco Sassòli, Professor of International Law, University of Geneva

Ben Saul, Challis Chair of International Law, University of Sydney

Michael N. Schmitt, Professor of International Law, University of Reading

Andrew I. Schoenholtz, Professor from Practice and Director, Human Rights Institute and Center for Applied Legal Studies, Georgetown University Law Center

Yuval Shany, Hersch Lauterpacht Chair in Public International Law, Faculty of Law, Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Scott J. Shapiro, Southmayd Professor of Law and Professor of Philosophy, Yale University

Sivan Shlomo-Agon, Lecturer, Bar-Ilan University Faculty of Law

Stefan Talmon, Professor of Public Law, Public International Law and European Union Law, University of Bonn

Christian J. Tams, Professor of International Law, University of Glasgow

Attila M. Tanzi, Chair of International Law, School of Law, University of Bologna

Ruti Teitel, Ernst C.Stiefel Professor of Comparative Law, New York Law School

Dire Tladi, Professor of International Law, University of Pretoria

Antonios Tzanakopoulos, Associate Professor of Public International Law, University of Oxford Faculty of Law

Maria Varaki, Lecturer in International Law, War Studies Department, King’s College London

Carlos M. Vázquez, Scott K. Ginsburg Professor of Law, Georgetown University Law Center

Yael Vias Gvirsman, Lecturer in International Law; Director, International Criminal and Humanitarian Law Clinic, Harry Radzyner Law School, Interdisciplinary Center (IDC), Herzliya

Michael Waibel, Professor, Department of European, International and Comparative Law, University of Vienna

Ralph Wilde, Associate Professor, Faculty of Laws, University College London

Siobhán Wills, Professor of Law, Transitional Justice Institute, Ulster University

Ariel Zemach, Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Law, Ono Academic College

Andreas Zimmermann, Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Potsdam

Gentian Zyberi, Professor of International Law and Human Rights, Faculty of Law, University of Oslo

Haim Abraham, Lecturer, School of Law, University of Essex

Tajudeen Sanni, Senior Lecturer, School of Law, Kampala International University

Kirsten Ainley, Associate Professor of International Relations, Australian National University

Susan M. Akram. Clinical Professor and Director, International Human Rights Clinic

Boston University School of Law

Karen J. Alter, Board of Lady Managers Chair, Professor of Political Science and Law, Northwestern University

Pierre d’Argent, Professor of International Law, University of Louvain

Louise Arimatsu, Distinguished Policy Fellow, Centre for Women, Peace and Security, LSE

Marie Aronsson-Storrier, Lecturer in Global Law and Disasters, University of Reading

Valentina Azarova, Manchester International Law Centre, University of Manchester

Saeed Bagheri. Postdoctoral Fellow in International Law, University of Reading

Seun Solomon Bakare, Doctoral Researcher at Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies, Leiden University, the Netherlands

Nigel Bankes, Professor and Chair of Natural Resources Law, Faculty of Law, University of Calgary

Marjolein van den Brink, Lecturer in Law, Utrecht University School of Law

Catherine Brölmann, Associate Professor of Public International Law, University of Amsterdam

Toby Cadman, Guernica 37

Başak Çalı, Professor of International Law, Hertie School, Berlin

Andrea Caligiuri, Associate Professor of International Law, Department of Law, University of Macerata

Mustafa Can Sati, PhD Candidate in International Law, Maastricht University

Nicolás Carrillo-Santarelli, Associate Professor of International Law at La Sabana University

Anthony E. Cassimatis, Professor of Law, University of Queensland

Bnarji Chakkam Professor of International Law and Dean, VIT-AP School of Law, VIT-AP University, India

Alejandro Chehtman, Professor of Law, Universidad Torcuato Di Tella

Aristoteles Constantinides, Associate Professor of International Law and Human Rights, University of Cyprus

Antonio Coco, Lecturer in Law, Essex Law School, University of Essex

Pablo Moscoso de la Cuba, Lecturer, Faculty of Law, Pontifical Catholic University of Peru

Eric David, Professeur émérite de droit international public de l’Université libre de Bruxelles

James Devaney, Lecturer in Law, University of Glasgow

Dr Talita Dias, Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Blavatnik School of Government, Junior Research Fellow & Lecturer, St Catherine’s College, University of Oxford

Giovanni Distefano, Professor of Public International Law at the Faculty of Law of Neuchâtel; the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights

Elvira Domínguez-Redondo, Associate Professor of International Law, Middlesex University

François Dubuisson, Professor of International Law, Université libre de Bruxelles

John Dugard, Emeritus Professor of Public International Law, Leiden University

Paul Eden, Senior Lecturer, Sussex Law School, University of Sussex

Daniel Erasmus Khan, Professor of Public International Law, University of the Bundeswehr Munich

Katharine Fortin, Assistant Professor, Utrecht University

Micaela Frulli, Professor of Public International Law, University of Florence

Paola Gaeta, Professor of International Law, Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies

Alexandre Skander Galand, Post-Doctoral Researcher, Centre for Fundamental Rights, Hertie School

Pietro Gargiulo, Full Professor of International Law, Faculty of Political Science, University of Teramo

Lorenzo Gasbarri, Research Fellow in International Law, Bocconi University

Alexander Gilder, Lecturer in Law, Royal Holloway, University of London

Emanuela-Chiara Gillard, Senior Research Fellow, Oxford Institute for Ethics, Law and Armed Conflict

Robert Heinsch, Associate Professor of Public International Law, Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies, Leiden University

Gleider Hernández, Professor of Public International Law, Faculty of Law, University of Leuven and Open Universiteit

An Hertogen, Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Law, The University of Auckland

Noelle Higgins, Associate Professor in Law, Maynooth University, Ireland

Patrizia Hobbs, Senior Lecturer, Brunel University London

Tamás Hoffmann, Associate Professor, Corvinus University of Budapest

Miloš Hrnjaz, Assistant Professor of International Law, Faculty of Political Science, University of Belgrade

Stephen Humphreys, Associate Professor of International Law, LSE

Alonso E. Illueca, Associate Professor of International Law and Human Rights, Universidad Santa María La Antigua, Panama

Jens Iverson, Assistant Professor of International Law, Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies, Leiden University

Ezequiel Jiménez, PhD Candidate, School of Law, Middlesex University

Derek Jinks, A.W. Walker Centennial Chair in Law, University of Texas

Fleur Johns, Professor of Law, UNSW Law, UNSW Sydney

Sarah Joseph, Griffith University, Brisbane

Mary Anne Kenny, Associate Professor in Law, Murdoch University

Hala Khoury-Bisharat, Lecturer in law, Ono Academic College School of Law

Pierre Klein, Professor of International Law, Université libre de Bruxelles

Vaios  Koutroulis, Professor of International Law.  Université libre de Bruxelles

Tally Kritzman-Amir, Visiting Associate Professor, Harvard University, Senior Lecturer

The College of Law and Business

Anne Lagerwall, Professor of International Law, Université libre de Bruxelles

Liora Lazarus, Associate Professor in Law, University of Oxford

Henning Lahmann, Senior Researcher, Digital Society Institute, ESMT Berlin

Michelle Lesh, Visiting Fellow, Melbourne Law School

Rain Liivoja, Associate Professor, University of Queensland Law School

Henry Lovat, Research Fellow, University of Glasgow School of Law

Asaf Lubin, Associate Professor of Law, Indiana University Maurer School of Law (beginning Fall 2020)

Said Mahmoudi, Professor Emeritus of International, Faculty of Law, Stockholm University

Vijayan Malayath Assistant Professor (International law), MCT College of legal studies, Malappuram, Kerala, India

Laishram Malem Mangal, PhD Scholar, Department of Law, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong, Meghalaya, India

Wade Mansell, Emeritus Professor of International Law, Kent Law School, University of Kent

Craig Martin, Professor of Law, Washburn University School of Law

Brianne McGonigle Leyh, Associate Professor of Law, Utrecht University

Owen McIntyre, Professor, School of Law, University College Cork, National University of Ireland

Chantal Meloni, Professor of International Criminal Law and Criminology, University of Milan

John R. Morss, Senior Lecturer, Deakin Law School, Deakin University

Solange Mouthaan, Associate Professor, School of Law, University of Warwick

Shannonbrooke Murphy, Endowed Chair in Human Rights, Assistant Professor, Human Rights Department, St Thomas University

Daragh Murray, Senior Lecturer, University of Essex School of Law & Human Rights Centre

Maria Sole Continiello Neri, Post – Doctoral Research Fellow, Lecturer in International Human Rights Law and International Public Law, National Research University Higher School of Economics

Giuseppe Nesi, Professor of International Law, Law School and School of International Studies, University of Trento

Vasuki Nesiah, Professor of Practice, NYU School of Law

Janne Nijman, Professor, University of Amsterdam and the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva, director of the T.M.C. Asser Institute, The Hague

Melanie O’Brien, Senior Lecturer in International Law, University of Western Australia

Stian Øby Johansen, Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Oslo

Raphael Oidtmann, Lecturer in International Law, University of Mannheim

Chris O’Meara, Fellow in Law, The London School of Economics and Political Science

Tamsin Phillipa Paige, Lecturer (International Law), Deakin Law School, Deakin University

Christophe Paulussen, Senior Researcher, T.M.C. Asser Institute

Mehrdad Payandeh, Professor of International Law, European Law and Public Law, Bucerius Law School Hamburg

Bryan Peeler, Instructor, Department of Political Science, University of Manitoba

Marie Petersmann, Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Utrecht University

Giulia Pinzauti, Assistant Professor of Public International law, Leiden University

Joseph Powderly, Associate Professor of Public International Law, Leiden University

Anni Pues, Lecturer in International Law, Glasgow Centre for International Law and Security, University of Glasgow

Gabor Rona, Professor of Practice, Cardozo Law School

Marco Roscini, Professor of International Law, Westminster Law School

Robert Roth, Hon. Professor at the Geneva Faculty of Law, former Director of the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights

Deborah Russo, Researcher of International Law, University of Florence

Luigi Sammartino, Fellow in International Law, University of Bologna

Barrie Sander, Fellow, Fundação Getúlio Vargas (FGV)

Tajudeen Sanni, Senior Lecturer, School of Law, Kampala International University

William Schabas, Professor of international law, Leiden University & Middlesex University

Iain Scobbie, Professor of Public International Law and Director of the Manchester International Law Centre, University of Manchester

David Scott, Doctoral candidate, University of Manchester

Thomas Skouteris, Associate Professor of Law, The American University in Cairo

Tom Sparks, Senior Research Fellow, Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law

Elizabeth Stubbins Bates, Junior Research Fellow in Law, Merton College, University of Oxford

Yusra Suedi, PhD Candidate in Public International Law at the University of Geneva

Mark B. Taylor, Researcher, Fafo Institute for Labour and Social Research, Oslo

Jeremy Telman, Professor of Law, Valparaiso University Law School

Molly Townes O’Brien, Associate Professor, ANU College of Law, The Australian National University

Sergey Vasiliev, Associate Professor of (International) Criminal Law, Faculty of Law, University of Amsterdam

Pål Wrange, Professor of International Law, Stockholm University

Matthew Zagor, Associate Professor, ANU College of Law, Australian National University

Deniz Baran, PhD student, Istanbul University International Law Department

Carlos J. Bichet Nicoletti, JSD Candidate in International Human Rights Law at Notre Dame Law School, University of Notre Dame

Pola Cebulak, Assistant Professor in European Law, European Studies, University of Amsterdam

Anupam Chander, Professor of Law, Georgetown University

Avinoam Cohen, Lecturer, Shtricks School of Law, The College of Management

Shane Darcy, Professor, Irish Centre for Human Rights, National University of Ireland Galway

Eitan Diamond, PhD candidate, Buchmann Faculty of Law, Tel Aviv University

Kirsten Fisher, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Studies, University of Saskatchewan

Shannon Fyfe, Assistant Professor of Philosophy, George Mason University

Kushtrim Istrefi, Assistant Professor of Human Rights Law and Public International Law, Utrecht University

Emilie McDonnell, DPhil in Law Candidate, University of Oxford

Jose Félix Pinto-Bazurco, Associate Member, Sociedad Peruana de Derecho Internacional

Lea Raible, Lecturer in Public Law, University of Glasgow

Antonio Remiro Brotons, Emeritus Professor of International Law, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM)

Niccolò Ridi, Lecturer, University of Liverpool

Raymond O. Savadogo, PhD Candidate in International & Comparative Criminal Law, Leiden University

Sergey Sayapin, Associate Professor of International and Criminal Law, School of Law, KIMEP University, Almaty

Emre Turkut, PhD Researcher, Ghent University

Tara Van Ho, Lecturer, School of Law and Human Rights Centre, University of Essex

Reuven (Ruvi) Ziegler, Associate Professor in International Refugee Law, School of Law, University of Reading

Gabriel Edmundo Albarracín, Profesor adjunto Cátedra Derecho Internacional Público, Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Sociales, Universidad Nacional del Litoral

Nicolas Angelet, Professor of International Law, Université Libre de Bruxelles

Danielle Annoni, Professor of International Public Law and Human Rights, Faculty of Law, Federal University of Parana

Rogier Bartels, Assistant Professor of Military Law, Netherlands Defence Academy, Research Fellow, Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Carlos Espósito, Professor of Public International Law, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid

Laura Henderson, Assistant Professor of International Law and Human Rights, Utrecht University

Nienke Grossman, Professor of Law, University of Baltimore School of Law

Alonso Gurmendi Dunkelberg, Assistant Professor, Universidad del Pacífico

Fabio Marcelli, Research Director and Director of the Institute for Legal International Studies of the National Research Council, Rome

Leigh Swigart, Director of Programs in International Justice and Society, International Center for Ethics, Justice, and Public Life, Brandeis University

Alessandra Annoni, Associate Professor of International Law, Department of Law, University of Ferrara

Virginie Barral, Department of Law, Goldsmiths University of London

Luigi Daniele, Lecturer, Public International and Humanitarian Law, Nottingham Law School

Jean-Pierre Gauci, Arthur Watts Senior Research Fellow, British Institute of International and Comparative Law

Johann Ruben Leiss, Associate Professor, Inland University of Applied Sciences, Norway

Ralf Michaels, Director, Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law, Hamburg

Piergiuseppe Parisi, Associate Lecturer, York Law School

Fikire T. Birhane, Lecturer in Law and Human Rights, Hawassa University, Ethiopia, PhD student at the Institute of International and Comparative Law in Africa, University of Pretoria

Ioana Cismas, Reader, Centre for Applied Human Rights & York Law School

Marjorie Cohn, National Lawyers Guild & International Association of Democratic Lawyers

Fitria, Lecturer in International Law, Faculty Sharia and Law, UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta

Rachel E. Vanlandingham, Professor of Law, Southwestern Law School

Arie Afriansyah, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law, Universitas Indonesia

Hanne Cuyckens, Assistant Professor of International law, Leiden University College

Ole Kristian Fauchald, Professor of Law, University of Oslo, Norway

Chiara Giorgetti, Professor of Law, Richmond Law School

Sara Kendall, Senior Lecturer in International Law, University of Kent

Alexander Schwarz, Assistant Professor of International Law, Faculty of Law, University of Leipzig

Ka Lok Yip, Lecturer, Faculty of Law, University of Hong Kong

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Topics
International Criminal Law, International Human Rights Law, International Humanitarian Law, Middle East, Public International Law
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